Ring, J.M., Niquist, J.G., Mitchell, s. (2008) Curriculum for culturally responsive health care: the step by step guide to cultural competence training. Radcliffe Publishing, Ltd. 

This is a user friendly manual offering a curriculum for residencies and medical schools. It describes engaging teaching strategies that challenges learners and faculty to examine their attitudes, values and beliefs as well as to expand their knowledge and skills to practice culturally responsive medicine.

Schirmer, J., Montegut, A. (Ed). (2009) Behavioral medicine in primary care: a global perspective. Radcliffe Publishing Ltd.
This book provides strategies for primary care professionals to apply behavioral medicine principles and concepts when caring for patients from diverse cultures and ethnic backgrounds. Its comprehensive and practical format illustrates skills that can be applied easily in multiple clinical and cultural settings.

Culhane-Pera, K., Ring, J. Cultural diversity (2005). In Alexander, M. Lenahan, P. Pavlov, A. A comprehensive guide to using film in medical education. (pp. 167-171). Radcliffe Publishing Ltd. 
This book provides medical and graduate educators with an innovative and effective cinema-based curriculum useful for teaching a broad array of topics, including cultural diversity.

Falicov, C.J. Latino families in therapy: A guide for multicultural practice, Second edition (2014). The Guilford Press, New York.
This book addresses clinical issues, family dynamics and sociopolitical realities faced by Latino families while avoiding stereotypical descriptions of their experiences. It also offers a useful conceptual framework - multidimensional ecosystemic comparative approach - which serves as a roadmap to a multicultural practice applicable to other cultural groups as well. This second edition covers an array of Latino nationalities and cultures and addresses the impact of globalization in family relations.



Tervalon M., Murray-Garcia J. Cultural humility versus cultural competence: a critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education. J Health Care Poor Underserved 1998; 9(2):17-25.
Seminal article that has reframed the discourse on cultural competence to convey that cultural "competence" is a process of continuing learning.

LEVIN S, LIKE R, GOTTLIEB J. ETHNIC: a framework for culturally competent clinical practice. In Appendix: useful clinical interviewing mnemonics. Patient Care 2000;34(9):188-9

Jones CP. Levels of racism: a theoretical framework and a gardener's tale. Am J Public Health. 2000;90:1212-1215

GREEN AR, BETANCOURT JR, CARRILLO JEE. Integrating social factors into cross-cultural medical education. Acad Med 2002;77(3):193-7

DOBBIE A, MEDRANO M, TYSINGER J et al. The BELIEF instrument: a preclinical teaching tool to elicit patient's health beliefs. Fam Med 2003: 35(5):316-9
Bhugra,D.. Migration, distress and cultural identity. British Medical Bulletin 2004; 69(1);129-141.

Interesting article by this prolific scholar who has examined well the impact of (im)migration on individual functioning and identity. 

Betancourt J., Eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care: What is the role of academic medicine? Acad Med 2006;81(9):788-792.
An article that illustrates and calls for the end to ethnic discrimination in health care through Quality Improvement and research

Dovidio J, Penner LA, Albrecht TL et al. Disparities and distrust: The implications of psychological processes for understanding racial disparities in health and health care. Soc Sci Med 2008;67:478-486

KUMAGAI AK, LYPSON ML. Beyond cultural competence: critical consciousness, social justice and multicultural education. Acad Med 2009:84(6);782-7

MOSTOW C, CROSSON J, GORDON S, ET AL. Treating and precepting with RESPECT: A Relational model addressing race, ethnicity, and culture in medical training. J Gen Inter Med 2010; 25 (Suppl 2):46-54


Geiger, J.H. Health disparities: What do we know?What do we need to know? What should we do? In A J Shultz & L. Mullings (Eds) Gender, Race, Class and Health. (2006) Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, pp 261-288.
Authored by a prominent scholar and leader in the field, this thoughtful and comprehensive overview of the evidence for health disparities is a must read for both teachers and learners. The book presents an unique analysis of the intersection of race, class, gender and health.

Korin E. C., Lebenshon P. Families, health and cultural diversity. In R. Jones et al (Eds) Oxford Textbook of Medical Care, vol I (2004), Oxford University Press, London, pp303-309.

Reviews basic concepts regarding culture and medicine and discusses cross-cultural barriers as they affect the medical encounter. It suggests strategies to address differences of belief systems, worldviews and communication styles and the concept of family as well as issues of mistrust in medical care.(Available by contacting E. Korin at


Online Resources

Unequal Treatment: What Healthcare Providers Need to Know About Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare
Part of the original 2002 Institute of Medicine report entitled Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Healthcare, published by the National Academy Press. The PDF for providers highlights training and educational strategies to eliminate that can help with the elimination of these disparities. View the PDF

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health
This website has Cultural Competency Curriculum modules which were developed to effectively equip physicians with awareness, knowledge and skills in cultural competencies to better treat the increasingly diverse U.S. population. Registered users of the website can order a free DVD entitled A physician's Practical Guide to Culturally Competent Care, containing case vignettes for discussion. 

The Health Care Interpreter Network
This website offers a video entitled Qualified Interpreting for Quality Health Care demonstrating the key proposals and communication skills involved in working with an interpreter in a health care setting. 

Cultural Competency for Health Care Providers
This 75-page pdf document was developed by the Champlain Valley Area Health Education Center. It provides a comprehensive overview of many aspects of cultural competency in health care settings including effective communication, using interpreter services, strategies for addressing health disparities and understanding specific populations. Self-assessment tools are also provided. Visit the website.

Implicit Bias